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Gleaning in the Fields

Saturday, April 10, 2021

“When you reap the harvest of your land, you shall not reap your field right up to its edge, neither shall you gather the gleanings after your harvest. And you shall not strip your vineyard bare, neither shall you gather the fallen grapes of your vineyard. You shall leave them for the poor and for the sojourner: I am the LORD your God."

Leviticus 19:9-10

There are special people whom God blesses us with who influence our faith. One such person for me was a man named Jim Frisby. I had the pleasure of knowing Jim during my time serving a congregation in rural Missouri. Jim had served the church there for decades as a teacher and an encourager. He was happily married to his lovely wife Hazel but the two had no children. I always thought this was regrettable, for Jim would have made an excellent overseer (cf. 1 Tim. 3:4). Jim has since gone on to his reward but "through his faith, though he died, he still speaks," as the Bible says (Heb. 11:4). 

Jim was always ready to accompany me to visit the sick, to help with Bible classes at assisted living homes, classes for new converts and any other evangelistic efforts. He was a gentle, humble, wise man who spoke softly but with conviction and purpose. He could always be counted on to say the right thing in the right way at the right time. He was a comforting influence and a good friend with a great sense of humor. Needless to say, there are precious few people in the kingdom like him. Through his quiet leadership of service to Christ Jim did more good a thousand sermons.

After visiting someone together, Jim and I had a conversation that I will never forget. I asked him why he had never devoted himself to preaching the gospel. He had an excellent knowledge of the Scriptures and a great reputation with his neighbors and was highly respected by the congregation. He was an gifted teacher as well, having developed all the skills necessary for teaching during his tenure as a professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Missouri. And it seemed to me that local churches needed more faithful men like him to teach and preach God's word.

His response was classic.

In his humble and casual manner, Jim paraphrased Leviticus 19:9-10, but he did so through the lens of the gospel, so to speak. Those verses anticipated Israel's life in the Promised Land and focused on sharing food from the harvest with the needy. Israelite farmers were not to harvest their field or vineyard bare in order to leave food for the poor and the sojourner. These weaker members of society were at a disadvantage and were to receive special treatment under the Law (Deut. 10:18-19; 24:19-21). 

Through the Mosaic covenant, Israel was to learn what it meant to serve a holy God. This included generously caring for those in need (Ex. 22:25-27; Lev. 25:35-37; Deut. 15:7-11; 24:12-15). Such generous care means putting people before profits. We see this principle worked out in the way God intended in Ruth chapter 2. Of course, this same spirit of generosity should characterize God's people today (Mt. 5:42; Gal. 2:10; 6:10; Jas. 1:27).

Jim knew what Leviticus 19 taught but he allegorized it for my benefit, to answer my question. Jim saw himself as one of those poor Israelites picking up the pieces during the harvest. A handful of grapes here, a leftover sheaf of grain there, and perhaps a few olives. To Jim, there was plenty of work to go around in the kingdom and he was content to be the kind of worker that picked up the pieces others left behind. As a gleaner in God's field, Jim played a 'supporting role,' for lack of a better term. 

The irony of this humble description of his work in God's vineyard was that in what he called 'gleaning' Jim had gathered more sheaves than many 'hired' laborers! The fields were "white for harvest" and his food was to do God's will (Jn. 4:34). He was truly "gathering fruit for eternal life" (Jn. 4:36). Local congregations need more servants like Jim who humbly do their work, picking up the pieces behind the scenes. No one knew the full extent of Jim's work or how many lives he had touched and enriched. No one knows, that is, except the Lord (Mk. 12:41-44). Jim did what he could, and that is always enough (Mk. 14:8). The longer I think about him, the more I aspire to be like him. "Therefore, my beloved brothers, be steadfast, immovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, knowing that in the Lord your labor is not in vain." (1 Cor. 15:58) 



Saturday, April 03, 2021

Jesus was never guilty of false advertising. No one is duped into discipleship because Christ tells us exactly what are are signing up for. When people said they would follow him wherever he went, Jesus responded, "Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests, but the Son of Man has nowhere to lay his head." (Lk. 9:57-62). In effect, he was saying, "Are you sure about that? Because once you start following me, your life is going to change and there is no turning back." With Jesus, it's all or nothing. 

On several occasions, Jesus explicitly told his closest followers what would happen to him in Jerusalem. He would suffer, die, and then be raised from the dead. This fate was unthinkable and completely incongruous to their expectations of the Messiah (Mt. 16:21-23). Nevertheless, having made it clear that there would be no cross-less Christ, Jesus then went on to tell them there would be no cross-less Christians either (Mt. 16:24-27). 


Jesus first tells those who want to follow him that we must deny ourselves. Not deny ourselves things, mind you (this is asceticism Col. 2:23), but deny ourselves. This voluntary dethroning of self and surrendering to Christ as one's sole authority is the first step in becoming a disciple (Mt. 28:18; Gal. 2:20).

He then tells potential disciples that we must carry our cross. This is not suffering the minor discomforts of everyday life, as in the modern phrase "we all have our cross to bear." It was customary for victims of Roman crucifixion to carry the instrument of their death to the place of execution (Mt. 27:32). It was a one-way trip. Jesus was speaking of a choice of death as a way of life. To bear one's cross is to consciously die to all forms of selfishness and sin (Rom. 6:6; Gal. 5:24; Col. 3:5). 

Then we must follow our Lord. As Jesus is not only our teacher but our also example (1 Pet. 2:21), a "disciple" is not just a learner but also a follower. The verb "follow" indicates continuance ("keep on following me"; cf. Lk. 9:23). Becoming a disciple means leaving everything else behind to follow Jesus everyday (Lk. 14:33). 

The demands of discipleship may seem too heavy to bear but they aren't! Granted, Jesus is demanding everything we have to give (Mt. 13:44-46), but once we recognize the weight of the cross he bore on our behalf (1 Pet. 2:24), our burden is light and easy by comparison (Mt. 11:30).


A great paradox of discipleship is that in renouncing our life for Christ's sake, we actually find our life! When choosing self over others, we think we are acting in our own best interest, when just the opposite is the case. Self-sacrifice governed the life of Jesus and resulted in eternal life. So it will be for all those who follow his example.

By living as a disciple, we also save our soul. Our soul, or our inner life, is our most prized possession. Jesus says that not even the entire world could compensate for losing it, perhaps because this world will pass away (1 Jn. 2:15-17) whereas one's soul will live on. Jesus refused to sell his soul for the world (Mt. 4:8-9) and compels his disciples to count the cost and make the same choice.

The final motivation Christ gives for following him is that we will meet our God. If the way of the cross seems severe, it helps to remember that a day is coming when Christ will return as Judge and hold the entire world to account (Mt. 25:31ff). Because this is so, choosing to be a disciple also means escaping God's just judgment and receiving his gift of grace and eternal life instead (Rom. 6:23). 

The rewards of discipleship may seem too good to be true but they aren't! The grace and eternal life available to disciples of Jesus is very real. Remember, there is no false advertising with Jesus. He wants us to weigh the cost of following him and choose life (Lk. 14:23-33). Those who have reservations about this commitment or find ways to justify their rejection of Christ engineer their own destruction. Those who count the cost and unreservedly follow Jesus will find their lives, save their souls, and meet their God as his forgiven, beloved children. 

Christian Women (part 3 of 3)

Saturday, March 27, 2021

"Let a woman learn quietly with all submissiveness. I do not permit a woman to teach or to exercise authority over a man; rather, she is to remain quiet. For Adam was formed first, then Eve; and Adam was not deceived, but the woman was deceived and became a transgressor. Yet she will be saved through childbearing—if they continue in faith and love and holiness, with self-control."

1 Timothy 2:11-15

In our final article in this short series on Christian women, we tackle the last section of this difficult verse. What does Paul mean in verse 15 when he says, "Yet she will be saved through childbearing"? Remember that Paul is addressing proper behavior in the Ephesian assembly. Men must learn to pray in purity and holiness (1 Tim. 2:8) and women must dress and behave modestly (1 Tim. 2:9-12). 

The Importance of Modesty (1 Timothy 2:9-12)

First, women should not draw undo attention to themselves with their dress. Evidently, some women in Ephesus treated the assembly like a fashion show. These vulgar, extravagent displays of wealth (and/or promiscuity) were out of step with the gospel of humility and holiness. Rather, Paul says, Christian women should be known for their "good works." These "good works" include, but are not limited to, leading a dignified, temperate lifestyle (1 Tim. 2:11), raising children, showing hospitality, and caring for the needy (1 Tim. 5:10). This is part of the "adorning" of inner beauty which is incorruptible and precious in God's sight, exemplified in a "gentle and quiet spirit" (1 Pet. 3:3-4).

The other side of immodesty is a tendency toward insubordination (1 Tim. 2:11-12). Women should take up their place, alongside the men, as disciples, which, in Jewish society, was a radical notion (see Lk. 10:38-42). But Christian women are to "learn quietly with all submissiveness," not necessarily silently but with a quiet and respectful demeanor. This attitude extends beyond the assembly into everyday life (1 Tim. 5:13). A Christian woman's role within a congregation is as a learner (v.11) not a teacher (v.12). However, this is not a complete prohibition against women teaching as Paul himself instructed the church in Crete that "older women" should "train the younger women" (Titus 2:3-4). Rather, Paul forbids women to "exercise authority over a man." 

Perhaps Paul writes so forcefully here because some women in Ephesus were disrupting the church by advancing the errors and speculations of false teachers (1 Tim. 5:13-15). He then goes on to support his argument by referencing the creation account in Genesis chapters 2-3. 

Male Leadership Defended (1 Timothy 2:13-14)

The order of creation (v.13) should suggest male headship in the church (cf. 1 Cor. 11:8-12). Paul then emphasizes how Eve was "deceived" by Satan (Gen. 3:13). The deception that Eve experienced in the Garden was not unlike that of some women in Ephesus (1 Tim. 4:1; 5:15; cf. 2 Cor. 11:3). "Adam," Paul says, "was not deceived" by the serpent. Rather, Adam sinned with his eyes wide open, that is, he sinned knowingly. Adam's was boldfaced rebellion and God held him to account (Gen. 3:17-19). 

Together, Adam and Eve, the representatives of the human race, plunged the world into ruin. How did this happen? Instead of following the order ordained by God in creation, Adam followed Eve leading to the downfall of both. Back to 1 Timothy, Paul's goal in writing the letter was to restore order to the church at Ephesus (1 Tim. 3:14-15; 1:3). That order includes respecting the appropriate roles of men and women within the church. The woman's role in the church is not primarily one of leadership, hence his reference to Genesis 3. 

Salvation through Childbearing (1 Timothy 3:15)

Paul softens the blow of verses 13-14 with the comforting, but admittedly difficult, words of verse 15. Though woman was deceived and fell into sin, "yet she will be saved through childbearing - if they continue in faith and love and holiness, with self-control." Notice the shift in pronouns from "she" (singular) to "they" (plural). Because of this ambiguity, there are different ways to read Paul's words. Our job, of course, is to determine the correct context and find out what he meant (2 Tim. 2:15). 

If "she" is Eve, the representative woman, and "they" are the Christian women at Ephesus, then "saved through childbearing" means that a woman's salvation comes not through the activity of ruling in the church but through faithfulness to her proper role, which is exemplified in motherhood. Christian women are to be known for their "good works" (v.10) which include marriage, child-rearing and keeping a good home (1 Tim. 5:11, 14; cf. Prov. 31). Paul could not be saying that having children and being a good mom serves as a basis for salvation, for not all women have children and salvation is not merited, so he qualifies his words: "if they (Christian women) continue in faith..." then they will be saved. 

Although this interpretation is a possibility and has a lot going for it, I believe there is another more likely one.

If "she" is a Christian woman and "they" are her children, then "saved through childbearing" means not saved from sin (eternal salvation) but saved from the pain associated with bearing and raising children in this world broken by sin. This would tie back into the curse pronounced to Eve in Genesis 3. In Eden, the natural order was turned on its head: instead of man leading woman and ruling over the beasts of the field together (Gen. 2:28), the beast (the serpent) led the woman, who led the man, which resulted in creation being "subjected to futility" (Rom. 8:20). 

Sin fractured God's creation and had severe effects on humanity. Particularly, women would suffer increased "pain in childbearing" (Gen. 3:16). "Pain" is prolonged toil and misery. This pain does not merely refer to the physical pain women suffer in childbearing but also includes the emotional suffering of childrearing (the Greek word found here could include both), raising children in a sin-sick world. Part of Eve's suffering the curse of sin was to know Cain killed Abel out of hatred and jealousy (Gen. 4:8). Whereas Adam's 'work' of raising crops was cursed with prolonged "pain" (Gen. 3:17), Eve's 'work' of raising children was also cursed with prolonged "pain" (Gen. 3:17). (This is not to say that women do not have secular jobs [see Lydia, Acts 16] and men have no part in raising children [see Eph. 6:4]). 

The Gospel of Christ 

"But when the fullness of time had come, God sent forth his Son, born of woman" (Gal. 4:4). It was through Eve, "the mother of all living" (Gen. 3:20), that God raised up her promised "offspring" and defeated evil through the cross and resurrection of Christ. In Jesus, God's promise to the serpent in Genesis 3:15 was fulfilled. Now that Jesus has come, mothers are "saved" (delivered or rescued) not only from sin but also from the "pain" of raising children, "if" those children "continue in faith and love and holiness, with self-control." Christian women can rediscover the joy of motherhood in a world where the curse of sin is being rolled back by the gospel. Mothers of Christian children everywhere echo the truth of John's words: "I have no greater joy than to hear that my children are walking in truth" (3 Jn 1:4). 

Christian Women (part 2 of 3)

Saturday, March 20, 2021

In the last article, we sought to dispell the notion that Christianity furthers the repression of women. Rather, Jesus came to challenge societal norms and restore womanhood through his kingdom reign. Some may protest, saying that Scripture reports some horrifying stories of the mistreatment of women. Indeed, it does report these incidents - often with excruciating detail - because Scripture is history. But in reporting these events, Scripture does not condone them. In fact, the biblical portrayal of women is positive from cover to cover. The text often goes out of the way to pay homage to women, to acknowledge their gifts, to celebrate their roles in society, and to exalt those virtues that are uniquely feminine (Prov. 31:10-31). 

Scripture always gives due distinction to the wives of the patriarchs. Sarah, Rebekah, and Rachel stand out in their own right. Miriam was both a prophetess and songwriter. In Micah 6:4, she is honored with her brothers as having led Israel during the Exodus. Deborah, also a prophetess, judged Israel prior to the monarchy (Jdg. 4:4). King Solomon honored his mother Bathsheba (Ex. 20:12), by standing in her presence then bowing to her before being seated on his throne (1 Kgs. 2:19). Sarah and Rachel are explicitly named for their faith in Hebrews 11, while Moses' mother (Jochebed) is included by implication (v.23). In the book of Proverbs, wisdom is personified as a woman (Prov. 1:20). The people of God, in both the Old Testament and New, are described as his beloved bride (Isa. 61:10; Rev. 21:2). All of this stands in sharp contrast to pagan culture and religion. 

Jesus' disciples included many devout women (Lk. 8:1-3), a practice almost unheard of among his contemporaries. He treated women with dignity and honor, perhaps especially those who were social, racial, and moral outcasts (Mt. 9:20-22; Lk. 7:37-50; Jn. 4:7-27). He blessed their children (Lk. 18:15-16), raised their dead (Lk. 7:12-15), forgave their sins (Lk. 7:44-48), and restored their lives (Jn. 8:4-11). 

Christ first disclosed his messianic identity to a woman (Jn. 4:25-26). Women did not abandon Jesus while he hung on the cross (Lk. 23:49). They witnessed his death and his burial (Lk. 23:55) and, because they had gone to embalm his corpse on the following Sunday and found the tomb empty (Lk. 24:1-3), women were the first to bring the good news of Christ’s resurrection to the apostles (Lk. 24:4-12). 

It is no surprise, then, that women became prominent in the early church (Acts 12:12-15; 1 Cor. 11:11-15). On the day of Pentecost, women were there with the apostles, praying in the upper room (Acts 1:12-14). Christian women were renowned for their good deeds (Acts 9:36), their hospitality (Acts 12:12; 16:14-15), their understanding of sound doctrine and spiritual-giftedness (Acts 18:26; 21:8-9). Paul regularly worked alongside faithful women (Phil. 4:3). He recognized and applauded their devotion, he celebrated their work, and thanked God for their talents in the Lord (Rom. 16:1-6; 2 Tim. 1:5).

Just because Christian women are not to exercise authority over men in the assembly does not mean they have no leadership role. On the contrary, Scripture plainly says the Spirit was poured out "on all flesh... your sons" as well as "your daughters shall prophesy" (Acts 2:17; Joel 2:28-32). God didn't promise the gift of prophecy to women and then forbid them to exercise it. Women were gifted by God's Spirit in the same degree as men in the first century. They prayed and prophesied (Lk. 2:36; Acts 21:9; 1 Cor. 11:5) for the "upbuilding and encouragement and consolation" of the church (1 Cor. 14:3). And this indicates some measure of leadership. 

The exercise of feminine leadership in the church, however, was limited (1 Tim. 2:12). Mature Christian women were charged with teaching younger women (Titus 2:3-5). We may balk at the idea of limiting this leadership role but all roles of leadership in the local church are limited due to the simple fact that Christ is the head we are all subordinate to (Eph. 1:22-23). My role as both a Christian and evangelist is limited (Heb. 13:17). I cannot be an overseer of this or any congregation because I do not meet the Scriptural qualifications. Even the roles of our overseers are limited by Scripture. All Christians live in submission to Christ (Eph. 5:24; Jas. 4:7) and to one another (Eph. 5:21), enjoying equal status, value, and worth in the kingdom, yet retaining our unique and complimentary roles. 

Men and women are "one in Christ" (Gal. 3:28), but this unity is not uniformity. Our gender is not obliterated in Christ, it is celebrated and serves to strengthen the church (Rom. 12:3-8). In Christ, the gender distinction is not a cause for division, as it is in the world, but is another part of our multi-faceted unity. Each of us have a unique role to play in the family of God (1 Tim. 3:15). Far from repressing women, the gospel of Jesus Christ elevates women to the status they deserve as joint heirs of the grace of life (1 Pet. 3:7; Gal. 3:26-29). In Christ, women retain their femininity while gaining their proper status and inheritance as fellow image-bearers of God (Gen. 1:26-28). 

Christian Women (part 1 of 3)

Saturday, March 13, 2021

"I desire then that in every place the men should pray, lifting holy hands without anger or quarreling; likewise also that women should adorn themselves in respectable apparel, with modesty and self-control, not with braided hair and gold or pearls or costly attire, but with what is proper for women who profess godliness—with good works. Let a woman learn quietly with all submissiveness. I do not permit a woman to teach or to exercise authority over a man; rather, she is to remain quiet. For Adam was formed first, then Eve; and Adam was not deceived, but the woman was deceived and became a transgressor. Yet she will be saved through childbearing—if they continue in faith and love and holiness, with self-control."

1 Timothy 2:8-15

The perception of many is that Christianity, represented in passages like the one above, regards women as second-class citizens. Women are daughters of the original troublemaker, so, some think, the best thing for them to do is to have children, stay at home, behave themselves, and keep quiet. Oh, and make sure they don't dress too pretty! Passages like this one, some believe, prove that the apostle Paul, who wrote it, was a male chauvinist and the Christian faith is yet another example of an archaic patriarchal religion designed by men to further subjugate women. 

This is not, as I hope to show, what this or any other Scripture teaches concerning women. The biblical view of femininity is a radical departure from societal norms. It begins with the foundational truth that women are distinct from men but coequal image-bearers of God with men, created to rule over all the earth together (Gen. 1:26-28). The arrival of Jesus Christ restored that purpose by elevating women to a position of equal honor, status, and value in his kingdom. Jesus expects women to work and even to lead in his kingdom, albeit in a limited capacity. 

To help us understand the above passage, let us compare it with other first-century views.

Rabbinical View of Women's Roles

One "Siddur," a Jewish prayer book, contains this morning blessing: "Blessed are you, O God, King of the Universe, Who has not made me a Gentile... a slave... a woman..." The Jerusalem Talmud notes the opinion of Eliezar ben Hyrcanus, who said, "Women's wisdom is solely in the spindle... The words of the Torah should be burned rather than entrusted to women" (JT Sotah 3:4, 19a). Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah put it more mildly, "... men come to learn Torah and women come to hear."

The Babylonian Talmud states, "Anyone who teaches his daughter Torah teaches her tiflut" (BT Sotah 21b). The word "tiflut" could be defined in one of two ways: 1) lewdness; men were afraid that women would learn how to outwit their husbands and fool around in secret; or 2) vanity/nonsense; learning was unnecessary for women because they don't need to know Torah. The scribes and rabbis of the first century believed it was inappropriate to teach a woman in public, though some permitted them to study on their own. This is a far cry from what the Jewish Bible, what we call the Old Testament, actually taught. But it accurately represents the sentiment of the day that women were inferior to men.

Pagan View of Women's Roles

Timothy, the one Paul wrote to, worked as an evangelist in Ephesus and the main religion of that city was a female-only cult to Artemis. A magnificent ionic temple constructed in her honor dominated the city and housed a huge statue of the goddess which the Ephesians believed to be a "sacred stone which fell from the sky" (Acts 19:35). Artemis was a female deity and the priests were all women. When it came to worshiping the goddess of the hunt and the wilderness, the women were the ones who ran the show and kept the men in their place. But the cult of Artemis was not unique. There were other cults that included women priestesses (as in Corinth in Achaia).

How Would Jesus Be Worshiped?

You could imagine the confusion and the pressures such a culture would exert on women who became Christians. Women were stepping out from one of two worlds into the Christian world. How would the worship of Jesus differ from the synagogue system and the Artemis cult? Some were saying that because Jesus saved both men and women alike, and all are "one in Christ" (Gal. 3:28), that the old ways of organizing male and female roles should be overturned. Should women be trained so that Christianity would become a cult like that of Artemis, where women take the lead? Or should the synagogue tradition of relegating women to the sidelines be carried over in a kind of male-only environment?

Christian View of Women's Roles

Paul rejects both ideas. Rather, he is challenging the world's view of gender stereotypes. In 1 Timothy 2:1-8, he is teaching how men ought to behave (1 Tim. 3:15). They should be devoted to regular prayer, not fulfilling the macho stereotypes of arrogant thugs, always fighting to get their way. Instead, they should "[lift] holy hands without anger or quarreling." Christian men should learn how to pray without attitudes of wrath or dissension. They should pray for peace in their community and government so that it provides an ideal setting for Christians to spread the gospel. 

Christian women (1 Tim. 2:9-15), "likewise," aren't to fulfill their stereotypes either. They are not to act like simpering, empty-headed valley girls, concerned only with fashion and materialism. They are to be noticed by their "good works" rather than the way they are dressed (v.10; cf. 1 Pet. 3:3-4). In addition, women should be allowed to study and learn along with the men in the same manner and degree. They are to do so "quietly with entire submissiveness" (v.11). We often take this to mean submission to men but Paul doesn't necessarily qualify it that way here. Really, all study of Scripture is to be with the submissive attitude of a devoted student, whether they are men or women (Isa. 66:2). 

This is perfectly in line with Jesus' teaching in Luke 10:38-42. There, Jesus affirms the priority of Mary's devotion to him as a learning disciple. In that text, while Martha was busy serving the guests, Mary was seated "at the Lord's feet" (v.39), a euphemism for the submission of a disciple (Acts 22:3). This was exclusively the realm of men! Mary flouted all the social conventions of gender and yet Jesus said she was exactly in the right place. Many of Jesus' most devoted disciples were women (Lk. 8:1-3). Paul is not inventing anything in 1 Timothy 2. Rather, he is building on what Jesus has already established.

The Qualification of Paul's Teaching 

But Paul qualifies himself in verse 12: "I do not permit a woman to teach or to exercise authority over a man; rather, she is to remain quiet." It's as if he is saying, "I don't mean to imply that I'm now setting up women as the new authority over men in the same way men exercise authority over women in the synagogues." No, the church is not to take on the model of the Artemis-cult. Women are not to seize control and exercise authority in the church over men. Rather, Paul is agreeing with what Jesus had already taught in Luke 10; that women deserve to learn and develop their talents like men. 

Christian women are to be free from the worldly stereotypes of fussing over their hair or makeup. They are to be free from hiding in the shadows like unobtrusive mice when the "men are discussing serious spiritual matters." But they are not free to take control of the congregation and turn it into another pagan system. Christian women are free to learn in quietness, to mature and develop their talents like the men so they can contribute to the kingdom in their unique ways.

In next week's article, we will discuss the role of Christian women further. Paul both encourages women to teach and regulates their role as teachers.

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